Tag Archives: microsoft

Windows Network Policy Server (NPS) server won’t log failed login attempts

This is just a short, but interesting blog post. When you have to troubleshoot authentication failures in a network that uses Windows Network Policy Server (NPS), the Windows event log is absolutely indispensable. The event log offers everything you need. The success and failure event log entries include all necessary information to get you back on track. If failure events would be logged…

geralt/ pixabay.com/ Creative Commons CC0

Today, I was playing with Alcatel-Lucent Enterprise OmniSwitches and Access Guardian in my lab. Access Guardian refers to the some OmniSwitch security functions that work together to provide a dynamic, proactive network security solution:

  • Universal Network Profile (UNP)
  • Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA)
  • Bring Your Own Device (BYOD)
  • Captive Portal
  • Quarantine Manager and Remediation (QMR)

I have planned to publish some blog posts about Access Guardian in the future, because it is a pretty interesting topic. So stay tuned. :)

802.1x was no big deal, mac-based authentication failed. Okay, let’s take a look into the event log of the NPS… okay, there are the success events for my 802.1x authentication… but where are the failed login attempts? Not a single one was logged. A short Google search showed me the right direction.

Failed logon/ logoff events were not logged

In this case, the NPS role was installed on a Windows Server 2016 domain controller. And it was a german installation, so the output of the commands is also in german. If you have an OS installed in english, you must replace “Netzwerkrichtlinienserver” with “Network Policy Server”.

Right-click the PowerShell Icon and open it as Administrator. Check the current settings:

As you can see, only successful logon and logoff events were logged.

The option /success:enable /failure:enable activeates the logging of successful and failed logon and logoff attempts.

Azure PowerShell vs. Azure RM PowerShell

In 2014, Microsoft announced the Azure Preview Portal, which was going GA in December 2015. Since January 8, 2018, the classic Azure Portal is turned off. The “Preview Portal” was more than a facelift. The classic Azure Portal was based on the Service Management mode, often called the “classic deployment model”, whereas the new Azure Portal uses the Resource Manager model. Azure Service Management (ASM) and Azure Resource Management are both deployment models. The Resource Manager model eases the deployment of complex setups by using templates to deploy, update and manage resources within a resource group as a single operation.

Azure PowerShell vs. Azure RM PowerShell

Different deployment models require different tools. Because of this, Microsoft offers two PowerShell modules for Azure. Depending on your deployment type, you have to use the Azure or AzureRM module. Both can be installed directly from the PowerShell Gallery using Install-Module -Name Azure or Install-Module -Name AzureRM .

Connect to Azure

Depending on the used module, the ways to connect to Azure differ.

Module AzureRM

You will notice, that AzureRM sessions does not persist between PowerShell sessions. This behaviour differs from Add-AzureAccount . But you can save and load your AzureRM session once you are connected.

Module Azure

NetScaler native OTP does not work for users with many group memberships

Some days ago, I have implemented one-time passwords (OTP) for NetScaler Gateway for one of my customers. This feature was added with NetScaler 12, and it’s a great way to secure NetScaler Gateway with a native NetScaler feature. Native OTP does not need any third party servers. But you need a NetScaler Enterprise license, because nFactor Authentication is a requirement.

To setup NetScaler native OTP, I followed the availbe guides on the internet.

The setup is pretty straightforward. But I used the AD extensionAttribute15  instead of userParameters, because my customer already used userParameters  for something else. Because of this, I had to change the search filter from  userParameters>=#@  to extensionAttribute15>=#@ .

Everything worked as expected… except for some users, that could not register their devices properly. They were able to register their device, but a test of the OTP failed. After logoff and logon, the registered device were not available anymore. But the device was added to the extensionAttribute. While I was watching the nsvpn.log with tail -f , I discovered that the built group string for $USERNAME  seemed to be cut off (receive_ldap_user_search_event). My first guess was, that the user has too many group memberships, and indeed, the users was member for > 50 groups. So I copied the user, and the copied user had the same problem. I removed the copied user from some groups, and at some point the test of the OTP worked (on the /manageotp website).

With this information, I quickly stumbled over this thread: netscaler OTP not woring for certain users. This was EXACTLY what I discovered. The advised solution was to change the “Group Attribute” from memberOf  to userParameter , or in my case, extensionAttribute15. Problem solved!

Meltdown & Spectre: What about Microsoft Exchange?

On January 18, 2018, Microsoft has published KB4074871 which has the title “Exchange Server guidance to protect against speculative execution side-channel vulnerabilities”. As you might guess, Exchange is affected by Meltdown & Spectre – like any other software. Microsoft explains in KB4074871:

Because these are hardware-level attacks that target x64-based and x86-based processor systems, all supported versions of Microsoft Exchange Server are affected by this issue.

Like Citrix, Microsoft does not offer any updates to address this issue, because there is nothing to fix in Microsoft Exchange. Instead of this, Microsoft recommends to run the lates Exchange Server cumulative update and any required security updates. On top, Microsoft recommends to check software before it is deployed into production. If Exchange is running in a VM, Microsoft recommends to follow the instructions offered by the cloud or hypervisor vendor.

The Meltdown/ Spectre shortcut blogpost for Windows, VMware and HPE

TL;DR

Jump to

I will try to update this blog post regularly!

Change History

01-13-2018: Added information regarding VMSA-2018-0004
01-13-2018: HPE has pulled Gen8 and Gen9 system ROMs
01-13-2018: VMware has updated KB52345 due to issues with Intel microcode updates
01-18-2018: Updated VMware section
01-24-2018: Updated HPE section
01-28-2018: Updated Windows Client and Server section
02-08-2018: Updated VMware and HPE section
02-20-2018: Updated HPE section
04-17-2018: Updated HPE section


Many blog posts have been written about the two biggest security vulnerabilities discovered so far. In fact, we are talking about three different vulnerabilities:

  • CVE-2017-5715 (branch target injection)
  • CVE-2017-5753 (bounds check bypass)
  • CVE-2017-5754 (rogue data cache load)

CVE-2017-5715 and CVE-2017-5753 are known as “Spectre”, CVE-2017-5754 is known as “Meltdown”. If you want to read more about these vulnerabilities, please visit meltdownattack.com.

Multiple steps are necessary to be protected, and all necessary information are often repeated, but were distributed over several websites, vendor websites, articles, blog posts or security announcements.

Two simple steps

Two (simple) steps are necessary to be protected against these vulnerabilities:

  1. Apply operating system updates
  2. Update the microcode (BIOS) of your server/ workstation/ laptop

If you use a hypervisor to virtualize guest operating systems, then you have to update your hypervisor as well. Just treat it like an ordinary operating system.

Sounds pretty simple, but it’s not. I will focus on three vendors in this blog post:

  • Microsoft
  • VMware
  • HPE

Let’s start with Microsoft. Microsoft has published the security advisory ADV180002  on 01/03/2018.

Microsoft Windows (Client)

The necessary security updates are available for Windows 7 (SP1), Windows 8.1, and Windows 10. The January 2018 security updates are ONLY offered in one of theses cases (Source: Microsoft):

  • An supported anti-virus application is installed
  • Windows Defender Antivirus, System Center Endpoint Protection, or Microsoft Security Essentials is installed
  • A registry key was added manually

To add this registry key, please execute this in an elevated CMD. Do not add this registry key, if you are running an unsupported antivirus application!! Please contact your antivirus application vendor! This key has to be added manually, only in case if NO antivirus application is installed, otherwise your antivirus application will add it!

OSUpdate
Windows 10 (1709)KB4056892
Windows 10 (1703)KB4056891
Windows 10 (1607)KB4056890
Windows 10 (1511)KB4056888
Windows 10 (initial)KB4056893
Windows 8.1KB4056898
Windows 7 SP1KB4056897

Please note, that you also need a microcode update! Reach out to your vendor. I was offered automatically to update the microcode on my Lenovo ThinkPad X250.

Update 01-28-2018

Microsoft has published an update to disable mitigation against Spectre (variant 2) (Source: Microsoft). KB4078130 is available for Windows 7 SP1, Windows 8.1 and Windows 10, and it disables the mitigation against Spectre Variant 2 (CVE 2017-5715) independently via registry setting changes. The registry changed are described in KB4073119.

A reboot is required to disable the mitigation.

Windows Server

The necessary security updates are available for Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Server 2016 and Windows Server Core (1709). The security updates are NOT available for Windows Server 2008 and Server 2012!. The January 2018 security updates are ONLY offered in one of theses cases (Source: Microsoft):

  • An supported anti-virus application is installed
  • Windows Defender Antivirus, System Center Endpoint Protection, or Microsoft Security Essentials is installed
  • A registry key was added manually

To add this registry key, please execute this in an elevated CMD. Do not add this registry key, if you are running an unsupported antivirus application!! Please contact your antivirus application vendor! This key has to be added manually, only in case if NO antivirus application is installed, otherwise your antivirus application will add it!

OSUpdate
Windows Server, version 1709 (Server Core Installation)KB4056892
Windows Server 2016KB4056890
Windows Server 2012 R2KB4056898
Windows Server 2008 R2KB4056897

After applying the security update, you have to enable the protection mechanism. This is different to Windows Windows 7, 8.1 or 10! To enable the protection mechanism, you have to add three registry keys:

The easiest way to distribute these registry keys is a Group Policy. In addition to that, you need a microcode update from your server vendor.

Update 01-28-2018

The published update for Windows 7 SP1, 8.1 and 10 (KB4073119) is not available for Windows Server. But the same registry keys apply to Windows Server, so it is sufficient to change the already set registry keys to disable the mitigation against Spectre Variant 2 (CVE 2017-5715).

A reboot is required to disable the mitigation.

VMware vSphere

VMware has published three important VMware Security Advisories (VMSA):

VMware Workstation Pro, Player, Fusion, Fusion Pro, and ESXi are affected by CVE-2017-5753 and CVE-2017-5715. VMware products seems to be not affected by CVE-2017-5754. On 09/01/2017, VMware has published VMSA-2018-0004, which also addresses CVE-2017-5715. Just to make this clear:

  • Hypervisor-Specific Remediation (documented in VMSA-2018-0002.2)
  • Hypervisor-Assisted Guest Remediation (documented in VMSA-2018-0004)

I will focus von vCenter and ESXi. In case of VMSA-2018-002, security updates are available for ESXi 5.5, 6.0 and 6.5. In case of VMSA-2018-0004, security updates are available for ESXi 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, and vCenter 5.5, 6.0 and 6.5. VMSA-2018-0007 covers VMware Virtual Appliance updates against side-channel analysis due to speculative execution.

Before you apply any security updates, please make sure that you read this:

  • Deploy the updated version of vCenter listed in the table (only if vCenter is used).
  • Deploy the ESXi security updates listed in the table.
  • Ensure that your VMs are using Hardware Version 9 or higher. For best performance, Hardware Version 11 or higher is recommended.

For more information about Hardware versions, read VMware KB article 1010675.

VMSA-2018-0002.2

OSUpdate
ESXi 6.5ESXi650-201712101-SG
ESXi 6.0ESXi600-201711101-SG
ESXi 5.5ESXi550-201709101-SG

In case of ESXi550-201709101-SG it is important to know, that this patch mitigates CVE-2017-5715, but not CVE-2017-5753! Please see KB52345 for important information on ESXi microcode patches.

VMSA-2018-0004

OSUpdate
ESXi 6.5ESXi650-201801401-BG, and
ESXi650-201801402-BG
ESXi 6.0ESXi600-201801401-BG, and
ESXi600-201801402-BG
ESXi 5.5ESXi550-201801401-BG
vCenter 6.56.5 U1e
vCenter 6.06.0 U3d
vCenter 5.55.5 U3g

The patches ESXi650-201801402-BG, ESXi 6.0 ESXi600-201801401-BG, and
ESXi550-201801401-BG will patch the microcode for supported CPUs. And this is pretty interesting! To enable hardware support for branch target mitigation (CVE-2017-5715 aka Spectre) in vSphere, three steps are necessary (Source: VMware):

  • Update to one of the above listed vCenter releases
  • Update the ESXi 5.5, 6.0 or 6.5 with
    • ESXi650-201801401-BG
    • ESXi600-201801401-BG
    • ESXi550-201801401-BG
  • Apply microcode updates from your server vendor, OR apply these patches for ESXi
    • ESXi650-201801402-BG
    • ESXi600-201801402-BG
    • ESXi550-201801401-BG

In case of ESXi 5.5, the hypervisor and microcode updates are delivered in a single update (ESXi550-201801401-BG).

Update 01-13-2018

Please take a look into KB52345 if you are using Intel Haswell and Broadwell CPUs! The KB article includes a table with affected CPUs.

All you have to do is:

  • Update your vCenter to the latest update release, then
  • Update your ESXi hosts with all available security updates
  • Apply the necessary guest OS security updats and enable the protection (Windows Server)

For the required security updates:

Make sure that you also apply microcode updates from your server vendor!

VMSA-2018-0007

This VMSA, published on 08/02/2018, covers several VMware Virtual appliances. Relevant appliances are:

  • vCloud Usage Meter (UM)
  • Identity Manager (vIDM)
  • vSphere Data Protection (VDP)
  • vSphere Integrated Containers (VIC), and
  • vRealize Automation (vRA)
ProductPatch pending?Mitigation/ Workaround
UM 3.xyesKB52467
vIDM 2.x and 3.xyesKB52284
VDP 6.xyesNONE
VIC 1.xUpdate to 1.3.1
vRA 6.xyesKB52497
vRA 7.xyesKB52377

 

HPE ProLiant

HPE has published a customer bulletin (document ID a00039267en_us) with all necessary information:

HPE ProLiant, Moonshot and Synergy Servers – Side Channel Analysis Method Allows Improper Information Disclosure in Microprocessors (CVE-2017-5715, CVE-2017-5753, CVE-2017-5754)

CVE-2017-5715 requires that the System ROM be updated and a vendor supplied operating system update be applied as well. For CVE-2017-5753, CVE-2017-5754 require only updates of a vendor supplied operating system.

Update 01-13-2018

The following System ROMs were previously available but have since been removed from the HPE Support Site due to the issues Intel reported with the microcode updates included in them. Updated revisions of the System ROMs for these platforms will be made available after Intel provides updated microcodes with a resolution for these issues.

Update 01-24-2018

HPE will be releasing updated System ROMs for ProLiant and Synergy Gen10, Gen9, and Gen8 servers including updated microcodes that, along with an OS update, mitigate Variant 2 (Spectre) of this issue. Note that processor vendors have NOT released updated microcodes for numerous processors which gates HPE’s ability to release updated System ROMs.

I will update this blog post as soon as HPE releases new system ROMs.

For most Gen9 and Gen10 models, updated system ROMs are already available. Check the bulletin for the current list of servers, for which updated system ROMs are available. Please note that you don’t need a valid support contract to download this updates!

Under Software Type, select “BIOS-(Entitlement Required”) – (Note that Entitlement is NOT required to download these firmware versions.

Update 02-09-2018

Nothing new. HPE has updates the bulletin on 31-01-2018 with an updated timeline for new system ROMs.

Update 02-25-2018

HPE hast published Gen10 system ROMs. Check the advisory: HPE ProLiant, Moonshot and Synergy Servers – Side Channel Analysis Method Allows Improper Information Disclosure in Microprocessors (CVE-2017-5715, CVE-2017-5753, CVE-2017-5754).

Update 04-17-2018

HPE finally published updated System ROMS for several Gen10, Gen9, Gen8, G7 and even G6 models, which also includes bread-and-butter servers like the ProLiant DL360 G6 to Gen10, and DL380 G6 to Gen10.

If you are running Windows on your ProLiant, you can use the online ROM flash component for Windows x64. If you are running VMware ESXi, you can use the systems ROMPaq firmware upgrade for for USB key media.

Exchange DAG member dies during snapshot creation

Yesterday, a customer called me and told me about a scary observation on one of his Exchange 2016 DAG (Database Availability Groups) nodes.

In preparation of a security check, my customer created a snapshot of a Exchange 2016 DAG node. This node is part of a two node Windows Server 2012 R2/ Exchange 2016 CU7 cluster.

That something went wrong was instantly clear, after the first alarm messages were received. My customer opened a console windows and saw, that the VM was booting.

What went wrong?

Nothing. Something worked as designed, except the fact, that the observed behaviour was not intended.

That a snapshot was created was clearly visible in the logs. Interesting was the amount of time, that the snapshot creation took. It took 5 minutes from the start of the snapshot creation until the task finished. During this time, pretty much data was written to the disks.

The server eventlog contained an entry, that pointed me to to the right direction.

Event Type: Information
Event ID: 1001
Source: BugCheck
Description: The computer has rebooted from a bugcheck. The bugcheck was 0x0000009E (0xffffe0001eccf900, 0x000000000000003c, 0x000000000000000a, 0x0000000000000000).

The Ask the Core Team wrote a nice blog post about this STOP error. In short: The failvoer clustering service incorporates a detection mechanism that may detect unresponsive user-mode processes. If an unresponsive user-mode process is detected, a HangRecoveryAction is called. Since Windows Server 2008, a STOP error (Bugcheck) is caused on the cluster node.

Most likely hypothesis

My explanation of the observed behaviour is, that my customer accidentally created a snapshot that has contained the VM memory. Because the Exchange server has 32 GB memory, the snapshot creation took some time and the VM became unresponsive. As the VM was responding again, the HangRecoveryAction did its dirty job.

Check if the checkbox for the VM memory is disabled, before you create a snapshot. Otherwise the bugcheck will do its job. Please note, that you might see this behaviour in all Microsoft Windows Failover Clusters, not only with Microsoft Exchange.

Exchange receive connector rejects incoming connections

As part of a bigger Microsoft Exchange migration, one of my customers moved the in- and outbound mailflow to a newly installed mail relay cluster. We modified MX records to move the mailflow to the new mail relay, because the customer also switched the ISP. While changing the MX records for ~40 domains, and therefore more and more mails received through the new mail relay cluster, we noticed events from MSExchangeTransport (event id 1021):

192.168.xxx.xxx is the mail relay cluster, which is used for the in- and outbound mailflow.

This event indicates that the remote server has reached the maximum number of simultaneous incoming connections to the receive connector. This value is specified by the MaxInboundConnectionPerSource  parameter, and the default value is 20. You can easily increase the value using the  Set-ReceiveConnector  cmdlet.

Microsoft has decreased this value over time. It was 100 in Exchange 2007, but 20 since Exchange 2010.

Stop using your work email for your Microsoft account

Microsoft two different logins for their services:

  • Microsoft Account (former Live ID)
  • work or school account (Azure AD)

Both are located in different directories. The Microsoft account is located in another user database at Microsoft, as a work or school account. Latter are located in a Azure AD, which is associated with a customer. Both account types are identified using the email address. Microsoft accounts are used for service like Skype, OneDrive, but also for the Microsoft Certified Professional portal. Work or school accounts are mainly used for Office 365 and Azure.

You can use your work email address for your Microsoft account, until someone creates an Azure AD, and a work or school account with the same email address is created. From this point, your login experience with the different Microsoft services will getting worse. The main problem is, that Microsoft tries to find the given account in one of their directories, and it seems that they prefer Azure AD. So the login will work, but the content of the user profile will be different, because it’s a different account.

This is a screenshot from the new login screen. As you can see, there is no way to choose if you wish to login with a work/ school or Microsoft account.

This is the old login experience, where you can choose between work/ school and Microsoft account.

Microsoft calls this an AzureAD and Microsoft account overlap, and they identified this as an issue. As a result, Microsoft denies the creation Microsoft accounts using a work or school email addresses, when the email domain is configured in Azure AD. Microsoft has published a blog post to address this issue: Cleaning up the #AzureAD and Microsoft account overlap

Because of this, you should avoid using your work email address for your personal Microsoft account. Even if this Microsoft account is linked to your MCP/ MCSE certifications. It is not a problem to use your personal Microsoft account, with your personal email address, for your certifications. And it is not a problem to link this account to a Microsoft partner account (as in my case).

Maybe it will be possible to merge Microsoft and work/ school accounts someday. There is an ongoing discussion about this since 2013 (Merge office365 and live accounts that use the same email address).

To remove your work or school email address from your personal Microsoft account, follow the instructions in this support artice (Rename your personal account).

Choose one, choose wisely – Office 365 tenant name

In the last months I came across several customers that were in the process to evaluate, or to deploy Office 365. It usually started with a Office 365 trial, that some of the IT guys started to play around with. Weeks or months later, during the proof-of-concept or during the final deployment, the customer had to choose a Office 365 tenant name. That is the part before .onmicrosoft.com.

I had it multiple times, that the desired tenant name was already taken. Bummer. But the customer wants to move on, so the customer decided to take another another name. For example, they added the post code to the name, or a random string. To their surprise, I put my veto on it. They immediately understood why, after I explained the importance of the tenant name.

The tenant name is visible for everyone

When using Sharepoint or OneDrive for Business, the Office 365 tenant name is part of the URL to access the service. Due to this, the tenant name is visible for everyone, including your customers. And no one wants to click on a link that points to noobslayer4711.onmicrosoft.com.

How to build a good tenant name

When thinking about the tenant name, make sure that you involve all necessary people of your company. Make sure that the management and marketing have agreed, when you recommend a specific tenant name.

Don’t use long names, or tenant names with numbers at the end. They might look suspicious and randomly generated. Make sure, that the tenant name does not include parts that might change in the near future, for example the legal form of your company.

Don’t add the current year, month or a date to it. Don’t add things like “online” or “24” to it, except it’s part of the companies name.

If you have created a tenant during a trial or during a proof-of-concept, try to reactivate it, especially, if the tenant uses the desired name.

Currently, you can’t change the Office 365 tenant name. I don’t know if Microsoft plans to make this possible.

How to reclaim a tenant name

As far as I know there is no process for reclaiming a tenant name instantly. When the last subscription of a tenant expires, the tenant becomes inactive. After 30 days, the tenant will be decomissioned. But it takes several months, until a tenant name can be used again.

As I said: Choose one, choose wisely…

Hell freezes over – VMware virtualization on Microsoft Azure

Update

On November 22, 2017, Ajay Patel (Senior Vice President, Product Development, Cloud Services, VMware) published a blog post in reaction to Microsofts announcement (VMware – The Platform of Choice in the Cloud). Especially these statements are interesting:

No VMware-certified partner names have been mentioned nor have any partners collaborated with VMware in engineering this offering. This offering has been developed independent of VMware, and is neither certified nor supported by VMware.

and

Microsoft recognizing the leadership position of VMware’s offering and exploring support for VMware on Azure as a superior and necessary solution for customers over Hyper-V or native Azure Stack environments is understandable but, we do not believe this approach will offer customers a good solution to their hybrid or multi-cloud future.

Looks like VMware is not happy about Microsofts annoucement. And this blog post clearly states, that VMware will not partner with VMware to bringt VMware virtualization stack on Azure.

I don’t know if this is a wise decision of VMware. The hypervisor, their core product, is a commodity nowadays. We are taking about a bare-metal solution, so it’s not different from what VMware build with AWS. It’s more about how it is embedded in the cloud services and cloud control plane. If you use VMware vSphere, Horizon and O365, the step to move virtualization workloads to VMware on Azure is smaller, than move it to AWS.

On November 23, 2017, the register published this interesting analysis: VMware refuses to support its wares running in Azure.

Original post

Yesterday, Microsoft announced new services to ease the migration from VMware to Microsoft Azure. Corey Sanders (Director of Compute, Azure) posted a blog post (Transforming your VMware environment with Microsoft Azure) and introduced three new Azure services.

Azure Migrate

The free Azure Migrate service does not focus on single server workloads. It is focused on multi-server application and will help customers through the three staged

  • Discovery and assessment
  • Migration, and
  • Resource & Cost Optimization

Azure Migrate can discover your VMware-hosted applications on-premises, it can visualize dependencies between them, and it will help customers to create a suitable sizing for the Azure hosted VMs. Azure Site Recovery (ASR) is used for the migration of workloads from the on-premises VMware infrastructure to Microsoft Azure. At the end, when your applications are running on Microsoft Azure, the free Azure Cost Management service helps you to forecast, track, and optimize your spendings.

Integrate VMware workloads with Azure services

Many of the current available Azure services can be used with your on-premises VMware infrastructure, without the need to migrate workloads to Microsoft Azure. This includes Azure Backup, Azure Site Recovery, Azure Log Analytics or managing Microsoft Azure resources with VMware vRealize Automation.

But the real game-changer seesm to bis this:

Host VMware infrastructure with VMware virtualization on Azure

Bam! Microsoft announces the preview of VMware vSphere on Microsoft Azure. It will run on bare-metal on Azure hardware, beside other Azure services. The general availability is expected in 2018.

My two cents

This is the second big announcement about VMware stuff on Azure (don’t forget VMware Horizon Cloud on Microsoft Azure). And although I believe, that this is something that Microsoft wants to offer to get more customers on Azure, this can be a great chance for VMware. VMware customers don’t have to go to Amazon, when they want to host VMware at a major public cloud provider, especially if they are already Microsoft Azure/ O365 customers. This is a pretty bold move from Microsoft and similar to VMware Cloud on AWS. I’m curious to get more details about this.