Tag Archives: server

Using WP fail2ban with the CloudFlare API to protect your website

The downside of using WordPress is that many people use it. That makes WordPress a perfect target for attacks. I have some trouble with attacks, and one of the consequences is, that my web server crashes under load. The easiest way to solve this issue would be to ban those IP addresses. I use Fail2ban to protect some other services. So the idea of using Fail2ban to ban IP addresses, that are used for attacks, was obvious.

From the Fail2ban wiki:

Fail2ban scans log files (e.g. /var/log/apache/error_log) and bans IPs that show the malicious signs — too many password failures, seeking for exploits, etc. Generally Fail2Ban is then used to update firewall rules to reject the IP addresses for a specified amount of time, although any arbitrary other action (e.g. sending an email) could also be configured. Out of the box Fail2Ban comes with filters for various services (apache, courier, ssh, etc).

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HPE ProLiant PowerShell SDK

Some days ago, my colleague Claudia and I started to work on a new project: A greenfield deployment consisting of some well known building blocks: HPE ProLiant, HPE MSA, HPE Networking (now Aruba) and VMware vSphere. Nothing new for us, because we did this a couple times together. But this led us to the idea, to automate some tasks. Especially the configuration of the HPE ProLiants: Changing BIOS settings and configuring the iLO.

Do not automate what you have not fully understood

Some of the wisest words I have ever said to a customer. Modifying the BIOS and iLO settings is a well understood task. But if you have to deploy a bunch of ProLiants, this is a monotonous, and therefore error prone process. Perfect for automation!

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How to monitor ESXi host hardware with SNMP

The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a protocol for monitoring and configuration of network-attached devices. SNMP exposes data in the form of variables and values. These variables can then be queried or set. A query retrieves the value of a variable, a set operation assigns a value to a variable. The variables are organized in a hierarchy and each variable is identified by an object identifiers (OID). The management information base (MIB ) describes this hierarchy. MIB files (simple text files) contain metadata for each OID. These are necessary for the translation of a numeric OID into a human-readable format.  SNMP knows two devices types:

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HPE Hyper Converged 380 – A look under the hood

In March 2016, HPE CEO Meg Whitman announced a ProLiant-based HCI solution, that should be easier to use and cheaper than Nutanix.

This isn’t HPEs first dance on this floor. In August 2015, HP launched the Hyper Converged 250 System (HC250), which is based on the Apollo server platform. The HW design of the HC250 comes close to a Nutanix Block, because the Apollo platform supports up to four nodes in 2U. Let me say this clear: The Hyper Converged 380 (HC380) is not a replacement for the HC250! And before the HC250, HPE offered the Converged System 200-HC StoreVirtual and 200-HC EVO:RAIL (different models).

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HP ProLiant BL460c Gen9: MicroSD card missing during ESXi 5.5 setup

Today, I was at a customer to prepare a two node vSphere cluster for some MS SQL server tests. Nothing fancy, just two HP ProLiant BL460c Gen9 blades and two virtual volumes from a HP 3PAR. Each blade had two 400 GB SSDs, two 64 GB M.2 SSDs and a 1 GB MicroSD card. Usually, I install ESXi to a SD card. In this case, a MicroSD card. The SSDs were dedicated for PernixData FVP. Although I saw the MicroSD card in the boot menu, ESXi doesn’t showed it as a installation target.


I’ve read a lot about similar observations of other users, but no solution seemed to be plausible. It’s not a solution to switch from UEFI to legacy BIOS or play with power management settings. BIOS and ILO firmware were up to date. But disabling USB3 support seemed to be a possible solution.

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Reset the HP iLO Administrator password with hponcfg on ESXi

Sometimes you need to reset the ILO Administrator password. Sure, you can reboot the server, press F8 and then reset the Administrator password. If you have installed a HP customized ESXi image, then there is a much better way to reset the password: HPONCFG.

Check the /opt/hp/tools directory. You will find a binary called hponcfg.

All you need is a simple XML file. You can use the VI editor or you can copy the necessary file with WinSCP to the root home directory on your ESXi host. I prefer VI.

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HP Service Pack for ProLiant 2015.04

Some weeks ago, HP has published an updated version of their HP Service Pack for ProLiant (SPP). The SPP 2015.04.0 has added support for

  • new HP ProLiant servers and options,
  • support for Red Had Enterprise Linux 6.6, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12, VMware vSphere 5.5 U2 and (of course) VMware vSphere 6.0,
  • HP Smart Update Manager v7.2.0 was added,
  • the HP USB Key Utility for Windows v2.0.0.0 can now handle downloads greater than 4GB (important, because this release may not fit on a standard DVD media…)
  • select Linux firmware components is now available in rpm format

In addition, the SPP covers two important customer advisories:

  • ProLiant Gen9 Servers – SYSTEM ROM UPDATE REQUIRED to Prevent Memory Subsystem Anomalies on Servers With DDR4 Memory Installed Due to Intel Processor BIOS Upgrades (c04542689)
  • HP Virtual Connect (VC) – Some VC Flex-10/10D Modules for c-Class BladeSystem May Shut Down When Running VC Firmware Version 4.20 or 4.30 Due to an Erroneous High Temperature Reading (c04459474)

Two CAs fixed, but another CA arised (and it’s an ugly one..):

  • HP OneView 1.20 – Upgrading Virtual Connect Version 4.40 with Service Pack for ProLiant (SPP) 2015.04.0 Will Result in a Configuration Error and an Inability to Manage the HP Virtual Connect 8Gb 24-Port Fibre Channel Module (c04638459)

If you are using HP OneView >1.10 and 1.20.04, you will be unable to manage HP Virtual Connect 8Gb 24-port Fibre Channel Modules after updating the module to firmware version 3.00 or later. This is also the case, if you use the smart components from Virtual Connect  firmware version 4.40! After the update, the VC module will enter a “Configuration Error” state. Currently there is no fix. The only workaround is not to update to HP Virtual Connect 8Gb 24-port Fibre Channel Module firmware version 3.00. This will be fixed in a future HP OneView 1.20 patch.

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Is Nutanix the perfect fit for SMBs?

There’s a world below clouds and enterprise environments with thousands of VMs and hundered or thousands of hosts. A world that consists of maximal three hosts. I’m working with quite a few customers, that are using VMware vSphere Essentials Plus. Those environments consist typically of two or three hosts and something between 10 and 100 VMs. Just to mention it: I don’t have any VMware vSphere Essentials customer. I can’t see any benefit for buying these license. Most of these environments are designed for a lifeime of three to four years. After that time, I come again and replace it with new gear. I can’t remember any customer that upgraded his VMware vSphere Essentials Plus. Even if the demands to the IT infrastructure increases, the license stays the same. The hosts and storage gets bigger, but the requirements stays the same: HA, vMotion, sometimes vSphere Replication, often (vSphere API for) Data Protection. Maybe this is a german thing and customers outside of german are growing faster and invest more in their IT.

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Logon problems after demoting a branch office Domain Controller

A customer of mine is currently refreshing his branch office server infrastructure. A part of this project is to demote the Active Directory Domain Controllers, that are currently running in each branch office. The customer has multiple branch offices and each branch office has an Active Directory Domain Controller which is acting as file-/ print- and DHCP server. Each branch office has its own Active Directory site. The Domain Controller and the used IP subnets are assigned to the corresponding AD site. Due to this configuration the clients at the branch office choose the site-local Domain Controller as logon server. This works totally flawless since a couple of years. Over the year bandwidth of site connection has increased and even small branch offices have a redundant MPLS connection to the HQ. And no one likes single domain AD forests with 20 or more Domain Controllers…

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Load Balancing inbound SMTP connection with HAProxy

In my last blog post I have highlighted how HAProxy can be used to distribute client connections to two or more servers with Exchange 2013 CAS role. But there is another common use case for load balancers in a Exchange environment: SMTP. Let’s take a look at this drawing:


The inbound SMTP connections are distributed to two Mail Transfer Agents (often a cluster of appliances, like Cisco IronPort or Symantec Messaging Gateway) and the MTAs forward the e-mails to the Exchange servers. Sometimes the e-mails are not directly forwarded to the Exchange servers, but to mail security appliances instead (like Zertificon Z1 SecureMail Gateway). After the e-mails have been processed by the mail security appliances, they are forwarded to the Exchange backend. Such setups are quite common. If a load balancer isn’t used, the MX records often point to the public IP address of a specific MTA. In this case, two or more MX records have to be set to ensure that e-mails can be received, even if a MTA fails.

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