Tag Archives: wordpress

CloudFlare API v4 and Fail2ban: Fixing the unban action

In January 2017, I wrote an article about how to protect your WordPress blog using the WP Fail2Ban plugin, fail2ban on your Linux/ FreeBSD host, and CloudFlare. Back then, the fail2ban was using the CloudFlare API V1, which was already deprecated since November 2016.

Free-Photos/ pixabay.com/ Creative Commons CC0

Although the actions were updated later to use CloudFlare API V4, I still had problems with the unbaning of IP addresses. IP addresses were banned, but the unban action failed. 

This is the unban action, which is included in fail2ban (taken from fail2ban- which is shipped with FreeBSD 11.1-RELEASE-p10):

And this is the unban action, which finally solved this issue:

I found the solution at serverfault.com. The only difference is an additional tr -d '\n'  in the last line of the statement. Kudos to Jake for fixing this!

To prevent the action file to being overwritten, you should copy the original cloudflare.conf  located in the  action.d  directory, e.g. to mycloudflare.conf , and use the copied action file in your fail definition.

The Linux OOM killer strikes again

As a frequent reader of my blog, you might have noticed that vcloudnine.de was unavailable from time to time. Reason for this was, that my server was running out of memory at night.

Running out of memory is bad for system uptime. Sometimes you have to sacrifice someone to help others.

It is the job of the linux ‘oom killer’ to sacrifice one or more processes in order to free up memory for the system when all else fails.

Source: OOM Killer – linux-mm.org

The OOM killer selects the process, that frees up the most memory, and that is the least important to the system. Unfortunately, in my case it is Apache or MySQL. On the other hand: Killing these processes have never brought back the system to life. But that is another story. Something has consumed so much memory at night, that the OOM killer had to start its deadly work.

Checking the logs

The OOM has started its work at ~5am, and it killed the httpd (Apache).

While checking the Apache error_log, this log entry caught my attention.

The next stop was the Apache access_log. At the same time as in the error_log, the Apache logged a POST request wp-login.php in the access_log.

And there were a lot more attempts… I did a short check of older log files. It was not the first OOM killer event, and the log entries were smoking gun. Especially the POST for wp-login.php.

The number below the command is the number of the POST requests logged in the access_log. The current access_log starts on Jan 08 2017. And since start, there are alreay 876 POST requests to wp-login.php. Looks like a brute force attack.

So there is nothing wrong with the sever setup, it simply breaks down during a brute force attack.