Exchange has known the concept of internal and external URLs for the different services (Outlook Web Access, OAB, EWS, ActiveSync etc) since Exchange 2007. And it’s still confusing people. The internal URL is the URL, that is used to access the desired service from the intranet. The external URL represents the URL that is used to access the service from the internet. Best practice is to use the same URL (the external) for both, use a certificate from a public CA, and use split DNS to access the external domain from the inside of your network.
People tend to imply, that URLs are not case-sensitive. This seems to be true in most cases. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) states:
URLs in general are case-sensitive (with the exception of machine names). There may be URLs, or parts of URLs, where case doesn’t matter, but identifying these may not be easy. Users should always consider that URLs are case-sensitive.
Citrix NetScaler and URLs
Citrix NetScaler handles URLs as case-sensitive.
A frequently used concept to load balance Microsoft Exchange with a NetScaler is Content Switching. Policies are used to identify traffic, and actions are used to take action on the traffic that matches the policies. The NetScaler uses the advanced policy engine to create expressions for the Content Switching Policies. When creating a Content Switching policy by creating an expression that uses the CONTAINS operator, you might notice that the results are case-sensitive.
This can be a problem in case of Microsoft Exchange, because /Autodiscover/Autodiscover.xml and /autodiscover/autodiscover.xml, or /ews/exchange.asmx and /EWS/Exchange.asmx are handled different.
To make sure that different cases are handled, you should add SET_TEXT_MODE(IGNORECASE) to you policy expression. Citrix describes this in CTX115528.
I’ve changed my NetScaler setup script for Exchange to handle this behavior.